Paper Abstracts

Factors influencing knowledge management use in technology enterprises in Southern United States

Tereza Raquel Merlo

The purpose of this quantitative study is to investigate the factors influencing with the Knowledge Management (KM) use process in Information Technology (IT) enterprises in the Southern United States. This study aims to present an analysis of the use of information systems by IT managers, IT supervisors, and Chief Information Officers (CIOs) from several information technology enterprises. It utilizes the theoretical Knowledge Management Successful model developed by Kulkarni, Ravindran, and Freeze (2007), which investigated the use of Information Systems (IS) for successful KM practices in organizations through the examination of available knowledge systems built to the use and reuse of information, content quality, and determinants of users’ perceptions of usefulness, user satisfaction and organizational support structure for knowledge management. In this study the data was collected from a sample size of 166 individuals, per G*Power 3 statistical power analysis program, to determine the sample and effect between the 8 (eight) predictors variables for estimating change among scores depicting Knowledge Use. Statistical analysis used SPSS package to test the hypothesis. The relationships between the predictor and criterion variables were evaluated using simultaneous multiple regression modelling to support inferences related to the omnibus research questions. The 8 (eight) predictors variables (Explicit Knowledge, Knowledge Systems, Supervisor, Co-Worker, Leadership, Incentive, Perceived Usefulness, and User Satisfaction) in this model were regressed independently onto scores on the Knowledge Use scale. This study concludes that the model predicting knowledge use is both statistically significant and practically significant, and that scores associated with Explicit Knowledge, Leadership, Perceived Usefulness, and User Satisfaction yielded statistically strong predictive relationships.

Relational and cognitive social capital: their influence on strategies of external knowledge acquisition

Beatriz Ortiz, Mario J. Donateb and Fátima Guadamillasa

This paper tries to analyze the relationship between external knowledge acquisition strategies and the relational social capital generated by firms in their relationships networks. The study is based on an empirical research applied to a sample of Spanish companies from biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries.
The paper mainly focuses on the effect of trust, as the basic component of relational social capital, on two types of knowledge acquisition strategies: alliances and direct purchases of external knowledge. Moreover, this paper proposes an interaction effect of a company’s cognitive social capital on the relationships between relational social capital and alliances as a method of knowledge acquisition. The argument is that shared visions and common values could moderate the relationship between trust and the acquisition based on narrower relationships between agents. The results of the study show that, although relational social capital has a significant influence on both types of strategies (alliances, direct purchases), such influence is more important for the case of alliances, although it is not finally affected by the interaction between cognitive and relational social capital.

Using knowledge management to give context to analytics and big data and reduce strategic risk

John S. Edwards, Eduardo Rodriguez Tabordab

At the moment, the phrases “big data” and “analytics” are often being used as if they were magic incantations that will solve all an organization’s problems at a stroke. The reality is that data on its own, even with the application of analytics, will not solve any problems. The resources that analytics and big data can consume represent a significant strategic risk if applied ineffectively. Any analysis of data needs to be guided, and to lead to action. So while analytics may lead to knowledge and intelligence (in the military sense of that term), it also needs the input of knowledge and intelligence (in the human sense of that term). And somebody then has to do something new or different as a result of the new insights, or it won’t have been done to any purpose. Using an analytics example concerning accounts payable in the public sector in Canada, this paper reviews thinking from the domains of analytics, risk management and knowledge management, to show some of the pitfalls, and to present a holistic picture of how knowledge management might help tackle the challenges of big data and analytics.

Towards scaffolding collaborative articulation and alignment of mental models

Stefan Oppl

Articulation and alignment of mental models has been recognized as an important issue in knowledge management over the last years. In the context of collaborative work processes, much research has been conducted in the field of how to facilitate such articulation and alignment activities to produce knowledge artifacts that appropriately represent organizational reality. However, the aspect of sustainably developing articulation and alignment capabilities for operative personnel has hardly been addressed so far. The article uses the educational concept of scaffolding to approach this problem. We review existing related work with a scaffolding lens and identify approaches that can be used to pursue scaffolding. We then report on a multiple case study we have conducted to identify potential for implementing different types of scaffolding in collaborative conceptual modeling activities for articulation and alignment. The results are used to show the potential value of scaffolding to trigger and support individual and collective learning processes in organizational problem solving processes as addressed by knowledge management research. The findings presented in the article allow to derive questions that should guide future research in this area.

Learning how to learn through experiential learning promoting metacognitive skills to improve knowledge co-creation ability

Koji Tanaka, Hieu Chi Dama, Shigeto Kobayashia, Takashi Hashimotoa, Mitsuru Ikedaa

The development of metacognitive skills is important to train people to work in the knowledge society, which requires the creation of value. However, within the limited period of university education, it is not reasonable to teach metacognitive skills that come from a knowledge co-creation process requiring collaborative metacognitive skills in a short-term educational program. Therefore, as a first step towards acquiring metacognitive skills, a teaching method is required that
allows students to learn metacognitive skills themselves within their day-to-day activities. In this study, we focus on the teaching assistant (TA) as one who can make the learning process more appropriate by reflection during a discussion.
Then we construct an educational model that promotes the metacognitive skill of learning how to learn on the basis of TAs’ experiences in facilitating discussion. Based on the results of analysis of reports described by TAs, we report on a part of our continuing investigation of how metacognitive skills may be learnt by facilitation of their development among students while TAs attempt to apply an experiential learning cycle.

Sharing Project Experience through Case-based Reasoning

Jürgen Dorn

Today, most knowledge-based companies organize work in projects. Due to different reasons knowledge gained in projects is not documented and shared in an appropriate manner resulting in the problem that critical knowledge is lost. We propose case-based storage of relevant knowledge and an appropriate reasoning about this knowledge to support organizations in new projects. In order to achieve this objective, we have analyzed which kind of critical knowledge is gained in projects or other way round, which missing knowledge results in the failing of projects. A case is a pre-defined knowledge structure filled out by potentially different stakeholders of the project. After the first planning of a new project, if the project characteristics are entered, case-based reasoning is used to find similar old projects and derive from them additional attributes and to make potential risks visible. This is useful to better estimate the effort of a project, the required human competences and the required communication between stakeholders. This knowledge transfer can support also other phases of a project such as scheduling activities. In a closing phase, individual problems solved in the project can be documented as a kind of lessons-learned attempt.

Knowledge process and learning organization development in science museums

Nopparat Thepthepa, Toshioa Mitsufuji

This study aims to investigate the possibility of improving organizational learning in science museums by promoting knowledge processes. Different knowledge process activities and organizational learning at different levels are examined. This study used a questionnaire to survey two science museums in Thailand: the National Science Museum (NSM) and the Science Centre for Education (SCE). The resulting data was analyzed in order to assess the level of organizational learning and level of conducted knowledge processes and draw conclusions through descriptive statistics. The relationship between knowledge processes and organizational learning was analyzed through correlation and multiple regressions.
This study provides evidence that there is a possibility for science museums to enhance levels of organizational learning by supporting knowledge processes. However, this would require science museums to focus its systems on organizational learning and alter the structure of any bureaucratic environments. This research can contribute empirical evidence to the dependency between knowledge management and learning organizations. It can also assist knowledge-oriented public organizations in improving organizational learning through understanding its relationship with knowledge processes. As the survey was conducted at two science museums in Thailand, it is not varied enough to qualify as an application to a generalized science museum context. In addition, this study focuses on knowledge processes, which is only one factor among many that may influence organizational learning. The statistical analysis used in this study also has limitations in determining interactions between variables on a deeper level.

Artificial intelligence creates a wicked problem for the enterprise

Stefan Holtel

James Watt invented the steam engine in the 17th century. It outperformed human muscle power by orders of magnitude. Nobody imagined that this single invention would evocate massive consequences: The steam engine increased industrial production, led to societal upheaval, and changed the political landscape for the next 100 years. There had been no historical parallel on the effect of a dedicated technical invention on humankind in such a short timeframe. At the beginning of the 21st century, we might experience a similar dynamic. This time, artificial intelligence spread the word of a new era that makes cognitive capabilities available on a large scale. Machines with highly sophisticated mental competencies will turn upside down the knowledge work in every company department, be it marketing, human resources, research and development, customer service, or the even the board of directors. Moreover, this time, intelligent machines will outperform human brain power. This paper argues that the arrival of artificial intelligence at the enterprise pave the way to a wicked problem: It cannot be resolved by tested methodologies, given procedures, and best practices. Instead, it requires a more sophisticated approach: First, companies must involve all relevant stakeholders at the initial stage of deployment because the impact of artificial intelligence is far-reaching. Second, companies must question their given value system because it closely resonates with the capabilities of artificial intelligence machines. Third, companies must conduct controlled experiments, because “divide and rule” do not work anymore to handle machines that mimic human thinking.

Gamification in education: a board game approach to knowledge acquisition

Bahar Taspinar, Werner Schmidt, Heidi Schuhbauer

Teaching students in a pleasant and successful way more and more requires the inclusion of interactive elements in the mix of didactic elements. As guessing games and quizzes always enjoy great popularity in class, we dreamt up the idea of developing a board game, based on typical gamification mechanics. Content-wise the resulting prototype game refers to Knowledge Management (KM) models, but its design is flexible so that it can be easily used for other learning contents in various settings like universities, schools or enterprise trainings. The prototype was tested and evaluated in a KM class at university. The results were promising and motivate to vary and further extent the concept.

Personal Knowledge Management for Development (PKM4D) Framework and its Application for People Empowerment

Ulrich Schmitt

Recent suggestions urge advancing Personal Knowledge Management (PKM) to provide the overdue support tools for individuals in the envisaged Knowledge Societies. To point out essential issues to be addressed, the paper proposes a PKM for Development (PKM4D) framework as a substantial extension of a current framework focusing on ICT4D (Information and Communications Technologies for Development). Closely aligned to Maslow’s Extended Hierarchy of Needs, it allows for a differentiated assessment of knowledge management related innovations and interventions and their impact on six ecosystems related to technology, extelligence, society, knowledge workers, institutions, and the ideosphere. The framework is a spin-off of a design science research project aiming to introduce a novel PKM concept and system. The objective of this paper is to provide a motivation and more general narrative for employing the PKM4D framework in other developmental contexts in order to address opportunity divides independent of space (e.g. developed/developing countries), time (e.g. study or career phase), discipline (e.g. natural or social science), or role (e.g. student, professional, or leader). With a prototype about to be converted into a viable PKM system (PKMS) and in following up on prior concept and design related articles, the PKMS is not the prime focus of attention but serves as an example case of a novel intervention to be assessed and validated by applying the PKM4D framework and its twelve criteria.

The impact of intellectual capital on companies’ performances: A study based on MAKE Award Winners and non-MAKE Award winner companies

LI Zhicheng, CHEN Zhuoer, LUI Trevor Tin Shing, Dr. CHU Samuel Kai Wah

Organizations believe that obtaining a knowledge management award will not only promote their brands but also enhance their business performance. However, this may or may not be the case as there is no definitive evidence that winning such an award would improve an organization’s business performance. The purpose of this study is to explore whether companies that have received the Most Admired Knowledge Enterprise (MAKE) Award boast a better business performance than those that did not get the award (non-MAKE winner companies). This research involves a quantitative analysis of business performance conducted based on the data collected from fifty-nine previous MAKE winners and fifty-nine comparable non-MAKE winner companies according to their market capitalization to identify similarities and differences. This study is limited by its small sample size and the difficulty of identifying the comparable companies as many award winning companies already receive world-class recognition. Based on the data analysis, capital efficiency (CEE) shows much higher explanatory power in the regression among MAKE award winners than their counterparts. Human capital efficiency (HCE) and value added intellectual capital (VAIC) are negatively correlated with ATO in non-MAKE winner companies. However, such correlation is not found in MAKE-award winners. Further implications are discussed in this paper.

Personal knowledge management as basis for successful organizational knowledge management in the digital age

Angelika Mittelmann

For many years, personal knowledge management (PKM) has been a minor issue in organizational knowledge management (OKM) programs. In the emerging digital age, there is a growing realization, that PKM might help developing the needed skills for the digital age. This paper describes the interrelation of OKM and PKM and how the latter can serve as a means for developing the outlined skills. For further clarifying the term, several definitions of PKM are presented.
Some PKM models and frameworks (Kolb’s ‘learning circle’, Nonaka’s et al. SECI model and concept of ‘Ba’, Smedley’s ‘PKM octohedron’, Reinmann/Eppler’s ‘Wissenswege’) are evaluated for their applicability in practice. A less complex concept, namely Jarche’s ‘Seek Sense Share framework’, is described in more detail and related to the ‘Fitness Circuit for PKM’. This ‘Fitness Circuit for PKM’ is suggested as a practical approach for developing digital skills in a sustainable way.

Conceptualising Needs to Enhance Organisational Learning and Enable Knowledge-Based Innovation

Florian Kragulj

Organisational learning causes organisational change; it utilises and results in (new) knowledge. Needs are crucial in these pro- cesses, since they govern behaviour and cause us to act. Consequently, it seems to be worthwhile to consider what needs are and how they can be exploited in organisational learning processes enabling innovation. In this conceptual paper, I theorise on the concept of need and argue why considering needs is beneficial in learning and innovation processes, such as vision or strategy development, in which various expectations which presumably emerge from shared needs have to be combined. Based on a trans- disciplinary literature review, I emphasise the principle of equifinality and propose a one-to-many relation between needs and their means of satisfaction. In order to take advantage of this relation, we have to understand what needs are and how they are linked to other phenomena. Therefore, I introduce an ontology, which aims at clarifying the concept of need for organisational practice and points at a specific type of knowledge crucial in the transition from needs to need satisfaction. I argue that this knowledge has to be generated and utilised in organisational learning processes.

Knowledge Sharing in a Creative City

Lenny Martini

This research aims to explore the knowledge sharing activities within a creative city. Through a case study of Bandung, Indonesia as a creative city, the objective of the paper is to develop model/s of knowledge sharing activities which are conducted by different actors within Bandung. The paper also wants to investigate whether the knowledge sharing activities contribute to the development Bandung as a creative city. The paper uses multiple forms of data consists of interviews, field notes from city observation and participation in community activities, government documents, news on local and national media and written interaction on social media. The finding argues that currently there are three major parties which involved in knowledge sharing activities in Bandung: the city government, the academicians, and the knowledge communities (Komunitas). The parties share a different type of knowledge for public through various media, dominantly via direct interaction like discussion and seminar and also through internet-based media. Interestingly, the research developed one model of knowledge sharing which is applicable to all the three major parties on their activities in relation to the development of Bandung as a creative city.

Developing an Empirically-based Framework of Metadata Change and Exploring Relation between Metadata Change and Metadata Quality in MARC Library Metadata

Oksana L. Zavalina, Vyacheslav Zavalin, Shadi Shakeri, Priya Kizhakkethil

Managing metadata quality and metadata change contributes to more effective knowledge management in various organizations. This study sought to test and refine the metadata change framework initially developed for characterizing the change in digit al library metadata, in the study of traditional library metadata. As well, the study investigates how the recent shift to the new resource description standard Resource Description and Access (RDA) has impacted the change in library metadata records. Using a content analysis approach, we assessed various quantitative and qualitative aspects of metadata change over time in library metadata records. The study reveals that in the time since the transition to the new standard, library metadata records have received a high level of attention from metadata editors as expressed in overall metadata change frequency and a variety of 3 change categories and 23 subcategories observed. Results suggests the most frequently occurring categories and subcategories of change within the library metadata records, the metadata fields most widely applied in the records and the ones most often undergoing changes, as well as the institutions that most often make changes to the records. Based on the changes observed in our study, we identify relations between specific metadata change categories and subcategories and metadata quality criteria of accuracy, completeness, and consistency. The directions for further research into library metadata change and connections between metadata change categories and metadata quality criteria are suggested.